With the commencing acculturation process in the host countries, these ‘imported’ risks will change and immigrants will adapt to the smoking behaviour of the majority population in the host country (see Figure The aim of this paper is to identify common patterns for smoking behaviour among immigrants (or foreign-born persons) from non-western to western countries with a special focus on the role of acculturation through a systematic review over the international literature..
All studies were filtered first by title and then by a narrower filter procedure following the inclusion and exclusion criteria listed below.
Community organizations purposively recruited participants from African American, African refugee, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities for a 21-item survey ( = 228).
Ninenty-three of these participants also participated in ten focus groups conducted in three languages.
Studies were included if they matched the following criteria: quantitative study; analysis of factors associated with cigarette smoking (irrespective of frequency and quantity); focus on immigrant adults (18 years and older); specification of country of origin; personal migration experience from an economically developing non-western country of origin to an economically developed western host country (North America, North and West Europe, Australia, and New Zealand).
The low (men)/high (women) prevalence among more acculturated immigrants indicates an adaptation towards the social norms of the host countries with ongoing acculturation.
High-income or economically developed western countries, such as North America, North and West Europe, Australia, and New Zealand are characterised by considerable ethnic diversity.
It causes a variety of cancers and cardiovascular diseases .
On the individual level, smoking patterns vary with socioeconomic status – and here especially with education – with stress, age, and gender.